Analysis of Neuropsychological Tests and functions to Diagnose Mild Cognitive Impairment in México.
Rosales Lagarde, Alejandra
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Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be defined as a loss of subjective or objective psychological processes, in general, of memory, in an independent individual. MCI is a syndrome that possesses four subtypes: amnestic of a domain, amnestic of multiple domains, non-amnestic of a domain and no-amnestic of multiple domains and MCI?s measurement is not uniform. The objective of this work is to review how MCI has been detected in Mexico by three national epidemiological initiatives and a state study, so the neuropsychological tests that have been applied and the measured psychological processes were analyzed. Methods: Literature concerning the three national projects and the state study were reviewed. The 37 psychological functions measured by the tests were grouped according to the classification of neuropsychological functions of a test elaborated in Mexico, the Neuropsi. Results: The tests employed in the projects were the Cross-Cultural Cognitive Examination, Minicog, Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, Modified Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer?s Disease and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Verbal memory tests were more frequently used, with 35.1% (coding and evocation); language, 27% (denomination, repetition, comprehension and verbal semantic fluidity); visuospatial memory (codification, evocation or drawing) with 16.2%; space, time and person orientation in 8.1%; attention and concentration, 8.1% (visual detection and subtraction); and in a 5.4% reading and writing. Conclusions: MCI is measured especially by errors in verbal learning and differed memory. Thus, the search for the detection of amnestic MCI on a single domain has prevailed in Mexico. A reflection is made about the necessity of following a national neuroimaging study similar to the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative implemented in the US and Canada considering the high index of illiterates? in Mexico, one quarter of the people equal to or older than 60 years old is illiterate?and the use of tests that include norms for illiterates as Neuropsi could bring light to classify in detail subtypes of MCI and illiterates and give a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis.