Formation, morphology and biotechnological applications of filamentous fungal pellets: A review.
Lucho Constantino, Carlos Alexander
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Bioprocesses with fungal biomass have been the subject of a growing interest in biotechnology industry because they represent a rich source of enzymes, antibiotics, vitamins, and complex metabolites, which have a great potential for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and environmental applications, among others. Filamentous fungi have dierent growth patterns (as mycelia, clumps, and pellets) in industrial processes. Therefore, the study of the morphology presented by this group of organisms is necessary to establish the conditions of production of new products or to improve the existing processes, even at the laboratory scale. Among the various forms of fungal growth, the formation of pellets represents many advantages in bioprocesses, and thus it is interesting to determine the factors that induce it. This manuscript describes the state of the art of fungal pellets, provides information on conditions of both inoculation and incubation that favor the formation of pellets at laboratory scale, as well as the advantages, applications and perspectives that pellets have in the field of biotechnology.