Association of intimate partner violence and health damage in pregnant women, Hidalgo Mexico
Objective. To determine the association between intimate partner violence and damage to health of pregnant women attending antenatal care in primary care level in 12 municipalities of Hidalgo Health Services in the period November 2008 to April 2009.
Material and Methods-. An analytical, cross-sectional epidemiological study with systematic random probability sampling was applied. It was carried out in the Health Centers of the Health Services in 12 municipalities. Data analysis began with obtaining descriptive statistics to estimate prevalence and outcome variables. The association between exposure variables of statistical significance (Pearson Chi Square) was explored. Measures of association that were obtained are the Prevalence Ratio with Confidence Intervals at 95%.
Results-. The 31.5% of the study population was about 15 to 19 years, 39.5% had completed secondary school, 91% were married or cohabiting. 80% were dedicated to home. 29% of women reported being abused in childhood, 30% of couples were beaten in childhood. 53% stated that in the last 12 months were the victims of some type of violence by their intimate partner. Violence during pregnancy was found: Psychological 52.6%, Physical 16.5%, Sexual 5.1% and Economic 25.4%. Association with psychological damage to physical and mental health, found that all were statistically significant (p < .001), the association with depression was 25 times more likely (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32), 16 times more nerve problems (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.21), lack of appetite 15.5 times (PR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21) and have thought about suicide 9 times more (PR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14). Regarding psychological violence there was found association with threatened abortion 13.7% more likely (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) in the rest there was no association. Regarding physical violence there was found an association with depression it was 28 times more (PR 1.28, 95% CI 1.21-1.35), trouble sleeping 20 times more (PR 1.20, 95% CI 1.13-1.26), anxiety 19% more likely (PR 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.25) and have thought suicide 11 times more (PR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.16). It also was found an association with: bruises 3 times more (PR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.05), threatened abortion 2 times more (PR 1.02, 95% CI .99-1.04) for the rest of the health damage there was no association. Regarding sexual violence there was found an association with depression 31 times more (PR 1.31, 95% CI 1.24-1.39), trouble sleeping 22 times more (PR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.29), regarding anxiety 22 times more (PR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15 -1.29), has attempted suicide 12 times more (PR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16); as well there was found that: 6 times more bruising (PR 1.06%, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), threatened abortion 4 times more (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) and vaginal bleeding 3 times more (PR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05%).
Conclusions: Intimate partner violence in pregnant women was present in the 4 types (psychological, physical, sexual and economic). The association was mainly present in damage to emotional health but it was also found association with damage to physical health commonly identified in pregnant women.