Association of intimate partner violence and health damage in pregnant women, Hidalgo Mexico

  • Nora Elena Sosa Bermúdez Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
  • Juan Carlos Paz Bautista Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
Keywords: Violence, emotional health damage, damage to physical health.

Abstract

Objective. To determine the association between intimate partner violence and damage to health of pregnant women attending antenatal care in primary care level in 12 municipalities of Hidalgo Health Services in the period November 2008 to April 2009. 
Material and Methods-. An analytical, cross-sectional epidemiological study with systematic random probability sampling was applied. It was carried out in the Health Centers of the Health Services in 12 municipalities. Data analysis began with obtaining descriptive statistics to estimate prevalence and outcome variables. The association between exposure variables of statistical significance (Pearson Chi Square) was explored. Measures of association that were obtained are the Prevalence Ratio with Confidence Intervals at 95%. 
Results-. The 31.5% of the study population was about 15 to 19 years, 39.5% had completed secondary school, 91% were married or cohabiting. 80% were dedicated to home. 29% of women reported being abused in childhood, 30% of couples were beaten in childhood. 53% stated that in the last 12 months were the victims of some type of violence by their intimate partner. Violence during pregnancy was found: Psychological 52.6%, Physical 16.5%, Sexual 5.1% and Economic 25.4%. Association with psychological damage to physical and mental health, found that all were statistically significant (p < .001), the association with depression was 25 times more likely (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32), 16 times more nerve problems (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.21), lack of appetite 15.5 times (PR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21) and have thought about suicide 9 times more (PR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14). Regarding psychological violence there was found association with threatened abortion 13.7% more likely (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) in the rest there was no association. Regarding physical violence there was found an association with depression it was 28 times more (PR 1.28, 95% CI 1.21-1.35), trouble sleeping 20 times more (PR 1.20, 95% CI 1.13-1.26), anxiety 19% more likely (PR 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.25) and have thought suicide 11 times more (PR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.16). It also was found an association with: bruises 3 times more (PR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.05), threatened abortion 2 times more (PR 1.02, 95% CI .99-1.04) for the rest of the health damage there was no association. Regarding sexual violence there was found an association with depression 31 times more (PR 1.31, 95% CI 1.24-1.39), trouble sleeping 22 times more (PR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.29), regarding anxiety 22 times more (PR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15 -1.29), has attempted suicide 12 times more (PR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16); as well there was found that: 6 times more bruising (PR 1.06%, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), threatened abortion 4 times more (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) and vaginal bleeding 3 times more (PR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05%). 
Conclusions: Intimate partner violence in pregnant women was present in the 4 types (psychological, physical, sexual and economic). The association was mainly present in damage to emotional health but it was also found association with damage to physical health commonly identified in pregnant women.

References

1. Huerta M. Violencia de Género, Salud y Derechos en las Américas (resumen de noticias/CIMAC) México 2001.

2. De la Vega-Sánchez AL. Violencia contra las Mujeres, un enfoque multidisciplinario.- Para comprender la violencia contra las Mujeres. México: Hidalgo; 2006.p.61

3. Chan M. Violence against women: a priority health issue. (Summary) Washington, DC, 1998.

4. Cuevas S, Blanco J, Juárez C, Palma O, Valdez-Santiago R. Violencia y embarazo en usuarias del sector salud en estados de marginación en México. Salud Pública; 2006; Supl 2: 239-249

5. Arce B. La OMS alerta sobre el maltrato a las mujeres embarazadas. Estudio mundial sobre la violencia doméstica (resumen). México 2005.

6. Population Council e Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Comité Promotor de una Maternidad sin riesgos. México; 2000.

7. Ipas México. La violencia, el embarazo y el aborto. Cuestiones de derechos de la mujer y de salud pública. México 2003

8. Khurram NA, Hyder A. Violence against pregnant women in developing countries. Eur J. Public Health; Ritzer George 2003; 13:105-107

9. Heise L., Pitanguy J, Germain A. Violence against women: the hidden health burden. Washington, DC, World Bank, 1994 (World Bank Discussion Paper No. 255).

10. Castro R, Ruíz A. Prevalencia y Severidad de la violencia contra mujeres embarazadas. México; Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias. Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM); 2004

11. Freyermuth G. Mujeres de Humo. México, CIESAS/Porrúa; 1999

12. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública/Secretaría de Salud. Encuesta Nacional sobre Violencia contra las Mujeres 2006. México 2008

13. Muñoz-Juárez S. Violencia contra mujeres embarazadas. Evento Día Internacional para la Eliminación de la Violencia hacia las Mujeres; 2010 Nov 25; Pachuca, Hidalgo, México.
Published
2014-07-05